Opium Poppies Need Pesticide Applications

Opium

Opium Poppies

The opium poppy is cultivated in different parts of the world such as Tasmania, India, Pakistan, Slovakia, France, Spain, Yugoslavia and Italy.  The fruits of the poppy are rounded capsules. The liquid (milky latex) obtained after lancing the capsules contains opiates which are dried to produce raw opium, used for processing medicinal drugs such as codeine and morphine. The commercial production of opium poppies is adversely affected by uncontrolled weeds, insects and disease organisms. Commercial growers rely on pesticide applications as described in a recent article about poppy growing in Slovakia.

“The cropping system of poppy has seen important changes in recent years. In the past, growing this crop required a great deal of manual labor connected with singling, hoeing and particularly capsule collecting. At present, all operations of the large scale cropping system, from sowing to harvest, are fully mechanized. Registered pesticides are used to control weeds, diseases and pests.

Pre-emergent herbicides Callisto 480 SC (mesotrione), or Lentipur 500 FW + Command 36 CS (chlortoluron + clomazone) are applied within 3 days after sowing. Due to slow initial growth, the post-emergent application of herbicide in growth phase of 4-6 true leaves is usually necessary.

Protection against poppy root weevil is realized through seed treatment with Cruiser OSR preparation. …A dangerous pest of poppy is poppy weevil, against which the protection is aimed at the time of “hook stage”. Among the registered insecticides, Mospilan 20 SP (acetamiprid) and Nurelle D (chlorpyrifos + cypermethrin) are used.

Poppy downy mildew and poppy fire are considered to be the most dangerous diseases of poppy, in conditions of the Slovak Republic. Occurrence of downy mildew during the leaf rosette period is suppressed by seed treatment. …In the phase of stem elongation, application of Acrobat MZ WG (dimethomorph +mancozeb) is possible. In the “hook stage”, Discus (kresoxym-methyl) or Bumper Super (prochloraz + propiconazole) are used to suppress poppy fire on both leaves and capsules.”

Names: Fejer, J., and I. Salamon.
Affiliation: Presov University in Presov.
Title: Agro-Technology of the Poppy: Large-Scale Cultivation in Slovakia.
Source: Acta Hort. 2014. 1036:181-186.

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Without Insecticide Sprays, European Olive Oil Would Smell and Taste Really Bad

Decay and feeding damage from olive fly

Decay and feeding damage from olive fly

More than 95% of the world’s production of olive oil (about 870 million gallons) comes from the Mediterranean region. The olive fly is an ancient pest mentioned in Greek and Roman writings dating back to the 3rd Century B.C. In heavily infested orchards more than 90% of the olives may be attacked. The larvae consume pulp which results in a reduction of oil quantity by 20-25%; the quality of the oil is also lowered. Oil obtained from olives infested with the olive fruit fly has 50-60% higher acidity. Exit holes made by larvae allow for the development of bacteria and fungi. Acidity is increased by fermentation through the action of bacteria and fungi and oxygen exposure. The larval gut contents may have an effect on the flavor of the oil and lead to a so-called “wormy smell”. In the 1960s, the availability of inexpensive chemical insecticides made it possible to protect the olive crop efficiently from the olive fly. Several countries such as Spain and Greece have government-sponsored programs that provide area-wide spray programs.

“The olive fruit fly, is considered to be the key pest of the Mediterranean Basin olive orchards. Females lay their eggs in both green and ripening olive fruit, and larvae feed upon the pulp of the fruit. They finally pupate inside the olive or exit to pupate on the ground. This pest causes a reduction in yield owing to a premature fruit drop or a loss of weight of the fruit caused by feeding larvae. Furthermore, microorganism growth inside the fruit increases the acidity of olive oils, which decreases their quality and commercial value. In table olives, B. oleae’s damage totally reduces their commercial value. Control methods against this pest include bait sprays, cover sprays and mass trapping. Traditional insecticides, such as organophosphates, and other more recently developed compounds, such as spinosad, are commonly applied as bait sprays.” 

Authors: Bengochea, P., et al.
Affiliation: Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Spain.
Title: Insect growth regulators as potential insecticides to control olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae Rossi): insect toxicity bioassays and molecular docking approach.
Source: Pest Management Science. 2013. 69:27-34.

High Quality Spanish Greenhouse Vegetables Depend on Fungicides

Greenhouse Industry, Almeria

Greenhouse Industry, Almeria

Almeria is located in the region of Andalucia in southeastern Spain. It has an average temperature of 68° and about 3000 hours of annual sunshine. Vegetable production in greenhouses has increased dramatically in Almeria. At present, about half of the total production from this area is exported to the European Union, especially Germany, France and the Netherlands. Almeria has become very competitive because it is relying on selling via high quality and not on low prices. Spain will try to improve its export position by increasing its market share in other parts of the world. Not only are prices competitive from Spain, but also the quality of Spanish produce is excellent. Needless to say, moldy vegetables are not acceptable for export from Spain and the greenhouse crops are intensively sprayed with fungicides.

Botrytis cinerea, is the causal agent of grey mould, one of the most important diseases of crops in Almeria, a region in south-east Spain where unheated plastic greenhouses cover an area of approximately 33.560 ha. Botrytis cinerea attacks a wide range of plant species in temperate zones and causes grey mould on many economically important crops such as vegetables, ornamentals, bulbs and fruit. Chemical control is the primary method for grey mould control, with alternative fungicides applied every 10 days, from November to March.”

Authors: Moyano, C., V. Gomez, and P. Melgarejo.
Affiliations: Department of Plant Protection, INIA, Ctra. De la Coruna, Spain.
Title: Resistance to pyrimethanil and other fungicides in Botrytis cinerea populations collected on vegetable crops in Spain.
Source: Journal of Phytopathology. 2004. 152:484-490.

Nobody Wants an Orange with a Worm Inside

Med Fly

Med Fly

Medfly females lay their eggs inside many different fruit and vegetable crops, including oranges. When the eggs hatch, small Medfly worms begin eating inside the fruit. In order to keep Spain’s oranges free from these worms, growers have to spray.

“The Mediterranean fruit fly is one of the most destructive pests of fruit in the world, attacking >250 species of fruits and vegetables. In Spain, this fly is considered one of the most economically damaging pests of citrus orchards. Direct losses result from the oviposition in fruits, larval activity, and eventual infection by fungi. In addition, quarantine measures are required for exportation to fly-free areas.”

(2)”The Mediterranean fruit fly is one of the most serious pests affecting cultivated plants in the world… Its life strategy includes changes of host species throughout the year, because larvae develop inside fruits only when they are mature.
Eastern Spain has a heterogeneous fruit growing area which extends all along the coast of Iberian Peninsula, from north to south… The most important damage to citrus fruits is produced between September and November, when satsuma and clementine mandarins reach maturity and suffer heavy attacks. Traditional control methods for reducing medfly populations and damage in citrus groves rely on the use of chemical sprays applied to fruits near harvest.”

(1)
Authors: C. Magaña, P. Hernández-Crespo, F. Ortego and P. Castañera
Affiliation: Departamento de Biología de Plantas, Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas, CSIC, Madrid, Spain
Title: Resistance to malathion in field populations of Ceratitis capitata.
Publication: Journal of Economic Entomology. 2007. 100(6):1836-1843.

(2)
Authors: Martinez-Ferrer M.T., et al.
Affiliation: IRTA Amposta. Ctra. de Balada, km. 1. 43870 Amposta (Tarragona). Spain.
Title: Seasonal and annual trends in field populations of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, in Mediterranean citrus groves: comparison of two geographic areas in eastern Spain.
Publication: Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research. 2010. 8(3):757-765.

European Consumers Demand Perfect Oranges Making Fungicide Use Necessary

Alternaria Brown Spot

Alternaria Brown Spot

Spain is a major producer of fresh oranges which are consumed throughout Europe. Disease infections in the citrus orchards can result in spots on the orange peel with no damage to the fruit inside. However, consumers will not pay top price for spotted oranges making fungicide use necessary.

“Alternaria brown spot (ABS) is a severe fungal disease of some mandarins and their hybrids in rainy and semiarid citrus-growing areas. … The presence of ABS in Spain has become a serious problem for ‘Fortune’ mandarin production.”

“Defoliation due to spring infections weakens trees and has an important impact on yield. However, fruit damage causes the most important economic losses. Fruit symptoms include light brown, slightly depressed spots to circular and dark brown areas on the external surface.”

“Although cultural practices that improve ventilation and prevent the growth of lush foliage can greatly reduce disease severity in the orchard, fungicide applications are essential to produce quality fruit for the fresh market. One or two sprays generally are needed to protect spring flush foliage to reduce defoliation and prevent inoculum build-up.”

Authors: A. Vicent, J. Armengol and J. García-Jiménez
Affiliation: Instituto Agroforestal Mediterráneo, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Valencia, Spain
Title: Rain fastness and persistence of fungicides for control of Alternaria brown spot of citrus.
Publication: Plant Disease. 2007. 91(4):393-399.