Nematicide Applications Could Increase Food Production in Africa

Roots

Nematodes are invertebrate roundworms that are second only to insects in the number of species in the animal kingdom. One cubic foot of soil may contain millions of individual nematodes. Nematodes feed on plant roots. Damage and low yields caused by nematodes frequently go unrecognized or are attributed to other causes. Research in Africa has demonstrated that controlling plant-parasitic nematodes can increase crop yields dramatically.

“Sweet pepper, the second most important vegetable crop in Niger, after onions is grown all over the country, but the region of Diffa alone accounts for over 85% of national production. The area planted in 2008 exceeds 7000 ha with a production estimated at 120000 t.

The production is mainly exported to Nigeria and procures substantial income to the people of the region of Diffa.

The average fruit yield of the crop is about 17 t/ha. This is very low compared to the potential of the crop. This low yield is partly due to diseases and pests pressure, namely the damage caused by plant-parasitic nematodes. …Yield losses caused by these nematodes can reach up to 60% in heavily infested sandy soils.

The study assessed the effectiveness of Savanem 20 EC (Ethoprophos, 200g/l), a newly introduced nematicide on the plant-parasitic nematodes associated with sweet pepper.

Savanem increased the average yield by 37.1% and Furadan by 20.6%.

Savanem 20 EC, at the dose of 50 L/ha is effective against the community of parasitic nematodes on sweet pepper.”

Authors: Adamou, H., et al.
Affiliation: Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique du Niger (INRAN)
Title: On-farm testing of savanem 20 EC (ethoprophos) for control of plant parasitic nematodes associated with pepper (Capsicum annuum) in tillaberi (Niger).
Source: Asian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2013. 5[4]:83-87.

Advertisements

Herbicides Help to Control Nematodes in Orchards

Nematode Damage

Nematode Damage (R)

Prior to the 1950s farmers of orchard crops in California had plenty of new land available as an alternative to replanting land that had previously been in production. However, with growing population and increased land values, a greater proportion of fruit and nut production has been on land where older orchards have been removed. Farmers frequently encounter growth problems when they replant. In severe situations, new plants die. Plant parasitic nematodes that are present on old roots are a common cause of the replant problem.

“Orchard removal and site preparation for walnuts can be extensive and expensive, but worth the time and expense to get new plantings off to the best start, according to Joe Connell, University of California Cooperative Extension farm advisor for Butte County.

Nematodes are a main concern, and the first thing that a grower should do is collect a soil sample from the feeder roots in the old orchard and have a nematode analysis done, Connell said.

After the soil testing, the next step is to cut down the trees, and then treat the stump with a herbicide, Connell said. Treating the stumps kills the entire root system, and it will kill out the nematode population that is attached to that root system, he added.”

Author: Coatney, K.
Affiliation: Reporter
Title: Walnut site preparation is essential for healthy orchards.
Source: Ag Alert. January 30, 2013.