Small Apple Growers in Italy’s Trentino Region Benefit Greatly from Insecticide Use

Trentino Region

Trentino Region

The province of Trento, or Trentino, is a mountainous region and an important producer of apples with annual production of about 450,000 tons accounting for about 20% of Italian production. Apple farming is the main source of income for about 10,000 families in Trentino. In addition, another 6000 families depend on income from the apple sector for packing, transportation and other secondary activities. In 1989, the Public Administration of Trento approved a program for Integrated Production standards. Since 1991, Integrated Fruit Production (IFP) guidelines have covered all aspects of production. The apple crop in Trentino is almost completely managed by IFP standards. In Trentino, codling moth has two generations per year. The most common situation includes an application of an insect growth regulator at the first egg-laying period and two more treatments using insecticides with a different mode of action. In Trentino, uncontrolled codling moth would damage 50-90% of the apples. Apple production in Trentino remains generally quite profitable and provides a major contribution to the economic and social standards of the province. By preventing damage from insects and pathogens, pesticides play an essential role in the economic and social well-being of the region.

“Codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L., is a key pest affecting pome fruit worldwide. In the Trento province (northern Italy) control of this pest is achieved by integrated pest management (IPM) programmes, largely relying on insect growth regulators (IGRs) during the first generation and on curative pesticides timed according to the injury threshold level during the second generation. In large apple orchards, mating disruption is preferred and is normally combined with one insecticide application during post-flowering to control lepidopteran larvae in general, including leafrollers. Because of their efficacy against both overwintering leafroller larvae and CM eggs, IGRs are widely used.”

Authors: Ioriatti, C., et al.
Affiliation: IASMA Research Center, Italy.
Title: Early detection of resistance to tebufenozide in field populations of Cydia pomonella L.: methods and mechanisms.
Source: Journal of Applied Entomology. 2007. 131[7]:453-459.

Advertisements

Good News for Organic Apple Growers: An Insecticide that Kills the Flea Weevil

Weevil damage

Apple Flea Weevil damage

In 2008, the apple flea weevil emerged as a serious pest in Michigan’s organic apple orchards with some growers experiencing >90% crop loss. The organic apple growers were spraying insecticides later in the season to kill major pests like the codling moth and the flea weevil emerged as an early season pest. The weevils feed on developing buds and leaves. Heavy populations cause significant defoliation of leaf tissue resulting in a lacelike pattern which leads to decreased productivity and possible tree death. Research at Michigan State University led to a solution for the organic growers- spray an insecticide…..

“Organic apple growers in the Midwest appear to have a relatively simple solution to their problems with apple flea weevil, which appeared suddenly as a problem in Michigan two years ago and took out 90 percent of the fruit in some orchards.

The best solution, entomologists say, is to spray Entrust (spinosyn) very early in the season, at green tip to pink… The apple flea weevil adult does its most serious damage by feeding on and destroying fruit buds before they have a chance to emerge in the spring.

John Pote, a graduate student at Michigan State University working with Dr. Matt Grieshop and Dr. Anne Nielsen in the organic pest management laboratory, gave the good news to organic growers during a session at the Great Lakes Fruit, Vegetable, and Farm Market Expo in Grand Rapids, Michigan, in December.

Pote noted that the weevil emerged as a problem for organic growers, who normally do not apply insecticides that early in the season, since few insects become active so early.

In conventional apple management programs, the weevil is likely incidentally controlled by insecticide applications made to kill other insects either in April—when overwintering weevils emerge—or in early July—when the summer generation emerges from leaf mines.”

Author: Lehnert, R.
Affiliation: Writer.
Title: Organic control for flea weevil.
Source: Good Fruit Grower. March 15, 2012. Available: http://www.goodfruit.com/Good-Fruit-Grower/March-15th-2012/Organic-control-for-flea-weevil/

Taiwan is Free of the Codling Moth and Wants to Keep It That Way: US Apple Growers Need to Spray in Order to Export

Asian with Foood

Apple Inspection in Taiwan

Gross Apple

Codling Moth in Imported Apple

The Taiwanese have the highest per capita consumption of fresh fruit in the world, about 300 pounds per person. The apple is the most heavily consumed imported fruit in Taiwan. US exports supply about 40% of the marketplace. If Taiwanese inspectors find three living codling moth larvae anywhere in the 2 million boxes of apples Washington growers send them, that shuts down the entire export market.  That happened in the fall of 2004 and in the four following months it cost the industry about $25 million. Since then, US growers have been vigilant……

“In 2002, Taiwan ruled that the discovery of three codling moths in US apple shipments in any given crop year would result in the closing of the Taiwanese market to all US apple imports. Since then, warehouses and shippers have been very careful in inspecting and rejecting damaged fruit from growers, and growers have been vigilant in spraying for codling moth as needed.”

Authors: Goldberger, J. A., Lehrer, N., and Brunner, J. F.
Affiliation: Washington State University
Title: Azinphos-methyl (AZM) phase-out: actions and attitudes of apple growers in Washington state.
Source: Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems. 2011. 26(4):276-286.

 

French Apple Production Requires Dozens of Pesticide Sprays every Year

Codling Moth

Codling Moth

Apple Scab

Apple Scab

French apple production totals about 1.9 million tons worth approximately $750 million annually. French apple orchards are plagued with the same major pests that infest orchards worldwide: the fungal disease, apple scab, and the insect, codling moth. Both pests would seriously damage most of the apple crop in France without the dozens of pesticide sprays that are made.

[1]
“In Southern France, over 35 pesticide treatments are applied yearly in apple orchards, among which 8-15 are targeted against the codling moth.”

[2]
“Codling moth is a major pest of pome fruit orchards throughout their area of cultivation…. Two or three larval generations are present in southern France and insecticide applications are needed from the beginning of the first larval generation in May until fruit harvest.”

[3]
”Chemical control of apple scab represents a considerable part of the pest control measures necessary to protect an apple orchard when it is planted with one or several cultivars susceptible to the disease. In France, as many as 15-20 fungicide treatments per year may be necessary to control the disease.”

[1]
Authors: Monteiro, L. B., Lavigne, C., Ricci, B., Franck; P., Toubon, J-F
Affiliation: UFPR, Parana Federal University; INRA Plantes et Systemes de Culture Horticoles
Title: Predation of codling moth eggs is affected by pest management practices at orchard and landscape levels.
Source: Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 2013. 166:86-93.

[2]
Authors: Simon, S., et al.
Affiliation: Unite Experimentale Gotheron, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique.
Title: Effect of codling moth management on orchard arthropods.
Source: Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 2007. 122:340-348.

[3]
Authors: Brun, L., et al.
Affiliation: INRA, UMR Pathologie Vegetale.
Title: Effects of apple cultivar susceptibility to Venturia inaequalis on scab epidemics in apple orchards.
Source: Crop Protection. 2008. 27:1009-1019.

Chilean Apple Growers Must Use Insecticides to Control Quarantine Pests

Codling Moth Frass

Codling Moth Frass

Chile is a major exporter of apples to other Latin American and Asian countries. Some of these countries do not have populations of the codling moth and they want to keep the insect out. Codling moth is present in Chilean apple orchards which means that growers must spray insecticides to assure that their export fruit shipments will not be rejected.

“Regular applications of insecticides have been the main management practice against codling moth in Chile. … Pest management in Chilean apple orchards with fruit grown for export is dependent on intensive pesticide use, mainly because of strong quarantine restrictions toward the codling moth from Asian and Latin America countries. In this production scenario, even low levels of fruit damage at harvest (<0.5%) are a major concern for growers. To avoid quarantine rejection of exports, an increase in the frequency of insecticide sprays has been observed.”

Authors: E. Fuentes-Contreras1, M. Reyes2, W. Barros1 and B. Sauphanor2

Affiliation:
1Department de Producción Agrícola, Universidad de Talca, Talca, Chile; 2PSH-Ecologie de la Production Intégrée, INRA Site Agroparc, Avignon Cedex, France
Title: Evaluation of azinphos-methyl resistance and activity of detoxifying enzymes in codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from central Chile.
Publication: Journal of Economic Entomology. 2007. 100(2):551-556.

The Worst Fruit Pest in the World is Even Worse in South Africa

Codling Moth

Codling Moth

The codling moth is the most destructive insect pest of pears and apples worldwide. Females deposit eggs on or near fruit and the hatched larvae bore into the fruit and tunnel to the core. As they near development, they eat out an exit hole which they plug with frass. Fruit attacked by codling moth cannot be used for fresh shipment or for commercial canning.

“The codling moth has been the key pest in South African pome fruit orchards since the species was first reported in the country in 1885. The infestation potential of codling moth in South Africa is one of the highest in the world, and moths may be active over as much as 8 months of the year. Codling moth causes extensive damage to apples and pears, with stone fruit being only occasionally attacked. The use of insecticides remains the primary means of controlling codling moth in South African pome fruit orchards, with up to 11 different insecticides being used for control.”

Authors: A.E. Timm1, H. Geertsema1 and L. Warnich2

Affiliation:
1Department of Entomology and Center for Agriculture Biodiversity, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa; 2Department of Genetics, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa
Title: Gene flow among Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) geographic and host populations in South Africa.

Publication: Journal of Economic Entomology. 2006. 99(2):341-348.