Chilean Apple Growers Must Use Insecticides to Control Quarantine Pests

Codling Moth Frass

Codling Moth Frass

Chile is a major exporter of apples to other Latin American and Asian countries. Some of these countries do not have populations of the codling moth and they want to keep the insect out. Codling moth is present in Chilean apple orchards which means that growers must spray insecticides to assure that their export fruit shipments will not be rejected.

“Regular applications of insecticides have been the main management practice against codling moth in Chile. … Pest management in Chilean apple orchards with fruit grown for export is dependent on intensive pesticide use, mainly because of strong quarantine restrictions toward the codling moth from Asian and Latin America countries. In this production scenario, even low levels of fruit damage at harvest (<0.5%) are a major concern for growers. To avoid quarantine rejection of exports, an increase in the frequency of insecticide sprays has been observed.”

Authors: E. Fuentes-Contreras1, M. Reyes2, W. Barros1 and B. Sauphanor2

Affiliation:
1Department de Producción Agrícola, Universidad de Talca, Talca, Chile; 2PSH-Ecologie de la Production Intégrée, INRA Site Agroparc, Avignon Cedex, France
Title: Evaluation of azinphos-methyl resistance and activity of detoxifying enzymes in codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from central Chile.
Publication: Journal of Economic Entomology. 2007. 100(2):551-556.

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Chile #1 Exporter of Table Grapes Thanks to Fungicides

Chile leads the world in the export of table grapes. A major challenge for Chile is the distance from the fields to the export markets. The long distance makes necessary having grapes of extremely high quality that can endure the trip and have a long shelf life. Botrytis is a disease that severely affects stored table grapes because it can infect the grapes in the field and then continue to grow in the berries’ storage, producing nests of gray-white fungus. Botrytis is common in Chilean vineyards, so the development of mold is prevented by the use of fungicides.

“Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is a common disease that causes important economical losses in grape production in Chile. Under cool and humid conditions, several fungicide treatments between bloom and harvest, in addition to cultural control measures, are essential to control gray mold of grapevines. … Gray mold requires several fungicide treatments to achieve satisfactory control in Chile.”

Authors: B.A. Latorre and R. Torres
Affiliation: Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile
Title: Prevalence of isolates of Botrytis cinerea resistant to multiple fungicides in Chilean vineyards.
Publication: Crop Protection. 2012. 40:49-52.